Saturday, May 23, 2020
Communication is significant for Soldiers and leaders in the military so as to perform the basic functions of leadership, i.e., Planning, Organizing, and Leading. Good communication helps leaders perform their duties and holds themselves and their Soldiers accountable for their responsibilities and actions or inaction. Effective communication serves as a foundation for planning. All the essential information must flow to the leaders who in-turn must communicate the plans so as to implement them. Organizing also requires effective communication with others about their job task. Similarly leaders must communicate effectively with their subordinates so as to achieve the unitÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. ADP 6-22 view on communication is Ã¢â¬Å"Competent leadershipÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Communication makes a significant impact on the moral and command climate within the unit. A good command climate will encourage the unit to be open and want to contribute to the success of the unit. When relationships built, less anxiety, and moral up the unit become more cohesive. Effective communication is a part and parcel of any successful organization. A communication should be free from barriers so as to be effective. Communication is a two way process where the message sent by the sender should be interpreted in the same terms by the recipient. The characteristics of effective communication are as follows: 1. Clarity of Purpose: The message to be delivered must be clear in the mind of sender. The person to whom it is targeted and the aim of the message should be clear in the mind of the sender. 2. Completeness: The message delivered should not be incomplete. It should be supported by facts and observations. It should be well planned and organized. No assumptions should be made by the receiver. 3. Conciseness: The message should be concise. It should not include any unnecessary details. It should be short and complete. 4. Feedback: Whether the message sent by the sender is understood in same terms by the receiver or not can be judged by the feedback received. The feedback should be timely and in personal. It should be specific rather than general. 5. Empathy: Empathy with the listeners is
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Carl Zimmer, wrote an essay Ã¢â¬Å"whose life would you save?Ã¢â¬ that asks why humans make the decisions they make and the philosophy behind it. Zimmer explains that Kant believed that pure reason alone could lead us to moral truths. He declared that it was wrong to use someone for your own ends and that it was right to act only according to principles that everyone could follow. For the sake of understanding who Kant is and his views, the philosopher Kant was a German philosopher and a deontologist; he believed that consequences donÃ¢â¬â¢t matter because moral judgment is contained in the act alone. He suggest the Categorical Imperative which means that morality is derived from rationality and all moral judgments are rationally supported. So, just as rational thought leads us to an objective reality, so to as there is an objective morality we can locate through the same process. Kant believes that the Categorical Imperative is a universal moral law that holds up regardless of context and circumstance. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s right is right and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong is wrong. The Categorical Imperative is divided into three maxims. The first is universality, which means that you should only do something if it would be okay if everybody did it all the time. You would know if what you were doing is correct if you would be okay with everyone else on the earth doing the exact same thing. The second maxim is that every human being must be treated as an end rather than a means to an end. You are never allowed toShow MoreRelatedKants Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Moral803 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals is the categorical imperative. The conception of an objective principle, in so far as it is obligatory for a will, is called a command (of reason), and the formula of the command is called an Imperative. (Abbott, 30) An imperative is something that a will ought or shall do because the will is obligated to act in the manner in which it conforms with moral law. The categorical imperative is an obligation by the will to act so that the action canRead MoreKantian Ethics And The Categorical Imperative Essay1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnlightenment Era German philosopher discusses his most famous ethical theory, the Ã¢â¬Å"Categorical Imperative.Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬Å"Categorical ImperativeÃ¢â¬ is a proposed universal law in stating all humans are forbidden from certain actions regardless of consequences. Although this is the general definition of this ethical theory, the Categorical ImperativeÃ¢â¬ exists in two above formulations, A strict interpretation of Categorical Imperative and a more liberal interpretation. This Kantian moral theory shapes almost allRead More Kants Categorical Imperative Essay1537 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKants Categorical Imperative Deontology is the ethical view that some actions are morally forbidden or permitted regardless of consequences. One of the most influential deontological philosophers in history is Immanuel Kant who developed the idea of the Categorical Imperative. Kant believed that the only thing of intrinsic moral worth is a good will. Kant says in his work Morality and Rationality Ã¢â¬Å"The good will is not good because of what it affects or accomplishes or because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s adequacyRead MoreTheory Of Morality As A System Of Hypothetical Imperatives Essay1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHypothetical ImperativesÃ¢â¬ , Philippa Foot argues against Immanuel Kant, that morality exists in hypothetical imperatives rather than categorical imperatives. For Kant, categorical imperatives alone serve as moral commands, and it would be impossible for a moral system to be based on hypothetical imperatives because such imperatives serve as means to ends and result from maxims that cannot be universalized in to perfect duties. Despite this, Foot holds that acting on many hypothetical imperatives can be morallyRead More Kants Fundamental Principles Of The Metaphysics Of Moral Essay792 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals is the categorical imperative. Ã¢â¬Å"The conception of an objective principle, in so far as it is obligatory for a will, is called a command (of reason), and the formula of the command is called an Imperative.Ã¢â¬ (Abbott, 30) An imperative is something that a will ought or shall do because the will is obligated to act in the manner in which it conforms with moral law. The categorical imperative is an obligation by the will to act so that the action canRead More Kant and the Categorical Imperative Essay897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKant and the Categorical Imperative Kant tried to develop a theory of ethics which relied on reason rather than emotion. While he was not anti-religious, he wanted an ethical system which was not clouded by religion, emotion or personal interpretation. He placed emphasis on motives behind an action rather than, like the Utilitarians, the consequences of an action. He believed that consequences were no guide to whether an action was moral or not. His theory is known asRead MoreKant And The Moral Law1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescare about that child s well-being and because we are motivated by the moral law to do what is right. Kant would disagree with those who do the right thing for the wrong reason. We, as a society and individuals in that society, should act in ways not because itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy for us or more favourable, but because its right and moral. 4) The Categorical Imperative: We see that Kant establishes that a moral action effectively consists of a moral intention motivating that action. Therefore, doing theRead MoreA Critique of the Categorical Imperative1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Critique of the Categorical imperative Immanuel Kant was without doubt one of the most influential Philosophers of his time. He was born in Koinsberg, Prussia on the 22nd of April 1724, and died on the 12th of February 1804 at the age of 79. Throughout his life Kant contributed his ideas to many major fields of Philosophy; however his biggest contribution was to the realm of ethics, when he developed the concept of the categorical imperative. He first introduced this idea in 1785 in a book he titledRead MoreThe Ethical Philosophy Of Immanuel Kant1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswield reason and rationality as morally autonomous beings. These obligations manifest to Kant in the distinctive forms of the Categorical Imperative. The Categorical Imperative is an unconditional demand of an action regardless of context or circumstance. For Kant, this was an absolute moral law that stands as do X objectively as you are obligated to. The Categorical Imperative must be known a priori, meaning knowledge that is independent of experience or justification. However, judgement itself cannotRead More Philippa Foots Hypothetical Imperatives Essay1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPhilippa Foots Hypothetical Imperatives Philippa Foot finds trouble with the arguments of Kant, who said that it was necessary to distinguish moral judgments from hypothetical imperatives. Although this may have become an unquestionable truth, Foot says that this is a misunderstanding. Kant defined a hypothetical imperative as an action that addresses what should or ought to be done. He believed that the necessity of performing a certain action was based on other desires. This particular
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction Much of the field of finance Is focused on creating abnormal returns?that is to say. Returns that are different from what one might expect them to be based on various characteristics of the investment?by identifying so-called Ã¢â¬Å"inefficienciesÃ¢â¬ in the stock market. Perhaps one of the most well-known strategies for taking advantage of these Inefficiencies, a strategy widely discussed In academic as well as Industry literature, is following the trades of company insiders. We will write a custom essay sample on Mimicking Insider Trading or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the united States, company insiders are required to report to the SEC any time they engage in a purchase or sale of their rimÃ¢â¬â¢s stock. Within two business days following the date of the trade. This Information, once reported to the SEC, Is subsequently made available to the public almost immediately, allowing outsiders to see exactly how insiders are trading. When insiders trade based on material non-public information and earn abnormal returns, it is a violation of the strong form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis, which itself is not backed by any significant emplace evidence, However, If outsiders are able to earn abnormal returns by mimicking Insider trades, this becomes a violation of the ideal-accepted semi-strong form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis, which states that the price of a stock incorporates all publicly available information. The academic literature contains many studies which attempt to generate excess returns by replicating Insider trades, with varying degrees of success. While some early studies (Gaffe 1994, Finery 1996) claimed that outsiders were indeed able to create a small amount of excess returns, a later study by University of Michigan Professor H. Negate Shun concluded that once these trades accounted for transaction costs, the excess returns would be nearly zero. Later studies by Rezone and Zamia (1988). Line and Howe (1990) and Frederica, Gregory, Mahatma and Tones (2002) have also reaffirmed that transaction costs depleted all the excess returns from these studies. (1)On the other hand, several studies conclude that it is possible to earn excess returns by applying a Ã¢â¬Å"mimicking strategyÃ¢â¬â¢ selectively. For example, Lakefronts and Lee (2001) conclude that if an investor mimics only large trades and only by the top management of a company (excluding board members, majority shareholders and other company employees), an outsider could in fact generate excess returns. Other theories suggest that It Is possible to successfully replicate Insiders trades by using the strategy in markets outside the US, such as in the Italian, German and Spanish markets. [l] A critical factor in determining whether an outsider will profit from replicating the trade of an insider is the motivation behind the trade. Insiders are likely to engage In Insider trades for a number of reasons, not all of them connected to Inside Information on future firm performance. An Inside trade that Is ambulated by liquidity or diversification needs is unlikely to contain any Ã¢â¬Å"predictive power and exult in any abnormal return for an outsider. While itÃ¢â¬â¢s relatively obvious that the InsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation In making an Inside trade Is a key factor in determining how successful the outsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s mimicking trades will be, existing academic literature has, for the most part, been unable to take advantage of this factor to increase returns on test portfolios. Were outsiders able to identify the motivation behind the insiderÃ¢â¬â¢s it might become possible to create a portfolio of performance-predicting trades, which would generate abnormal returns. In a 2007 paper entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Decoding Inside InformationÃ¢â¬ , (Cohen et al. Harvard University and University of Toronto professors test an innovative and original approach to mimicking insider trades. By using a simple algorithm, the strategy attempts to separate insider traders into two categories: opportunistic traders and routine traders. Specifically, the algorithm involves analyzing the past three years of an insiderÃ¢â¬â¢s trading history, and identifying as routine traders those who had made inside trades in the same calendar month for three consecutive years. The remaining insiders, approximately, 45% of Cohen et al. Ã¢â¬Ës sample, is identified as opportunistic traders. Insiders without three years of trading story are discarded from the sample entirely. Cohen et al. Test whether the trades made by these Ã¢â¬Å"opportunistic tradersÃ¢â¬ contain any predictive power relating to firm performance, and how the trades of Ã¢â¬Å"routine tradersÃ¢â¬ perform in comparison. Methodology In order to test the efficacy of this strategy, the authors construct four test portfolios at the end of month t, comprised of month itÃ¢â¬â¢s: a) Opportunistic buys b) Opportunistic sells c) Routine buys d) Routine sells At the end of each month, the portfolios are rebalanced to reflect the routine and opportunistic inside trades and buys in that month. The objective of using these oratorios is to test whether or not there is any added value in separating routine traders from opportunistic traders, using the algorithm designed by the authors. In other words, the study tests whether following only those insiders identified by the algorithm as Ã¢â¬Å"opportunisticÃ¢â¬ could yield a positive alpha, and how this compares to the returns of the Ã¢â¬Å"routine traderÃ¢â¬ portfolios. As noted above, the SEC requires insiders to report transactions within two business days following the trade (prior to the enactment of Serbians-Solely in 2002, insiders had until the 10th day of the following month to report the trade). In the sample used by Cohen et al. , nearly all of the trades were reported on the day on which the insider made the trade. (2) As such, by the time the portfolios are rebalanced at the end of each month, information on these inside trades would have been publicly available knowledge. Nonetheless, it is important to consider the potential implications of this on the results of the strategy. Predictive Ability of Routine vs. Opportunistic Trades In order to determine whether the Ã¢â¬Å"opportunisticÃ¢â¬ traders, as defined by Cohen et al. s algorithm, actually contain any predictive power, the authors run pooled aggressions of returns on indicators of routine and opportunistic trades in the prior month, with future one-month returns as the dependent variable. The findings reveal that both the buy and sell opportunistic trades contained much greater predictive power than routine buys and sells. The results reveal that opportunistic buys yield average returns 0. 90 basis points (with a t-statistic of 4. 46), 76 basis points higher than that of routine buys. With a p-value of 0. %, the difference is significant. It is much better indicator than considering all insider buys. Testing opportunistic versus outing sells exhibits similar results, with a coefficient of -0. 78 in the regression of opportunistic sells, and 0. 04 in the regression of routine sells. The difference is again significant with a p-value of 0% (F=29. 30). See Table 1 in Appendix for full results. Alpha The authors test for the presence of abnormal returns using several different asset pricing models, including the CAMP and the Fame-French model, as well as others. While the tests use two different types of portfolios, one value-weighted and one equally weighted, the findings are similar and the results below will therefore focus only on the equally-weighted portfolio. In the case of opportunistic versus routine buys, the results indicate monthly CAMP alphas of 1. 51% (with a t-ratio of 5. 89 and p- value 1%) and 0. 92% respectively. Examining the results with a more complete model, such as the Fama-French, reveals similar findings with opportunistic buys versus routine buys generating monthly Fama-French alphas of 1. % (t-ratio of 5. 49) versus 0. 64%, respectively. Opportunistic versus routine sells leads to similar results. The monthly CAPM alphas for opportunistic sells and routine sells are -0. 30% and 0. 2% respectively and monthly Fama-French alphas of -0. 21% and 0. 43% for opportunistic and routine trades respectively. It is therefore clear that while the opportunistic sells are negatively correlated with the market, the routine sells are not. The results obtained with the others risk models lead to the same results. The results indicate that longing opportunistic buys, and shorting opportunistic sells could yield significant excess returns. An equally-weighted portfolio of opportunistic buys and sells yields a monthly CAMP alpha of 1. 81%, and a monthly Fame-French alpha of 1. 41%, with respective t-ratios of 5. 6 and 5. 04. Based on these results, it is evident that by separating routine and opportunistic trades from trades motivated by liquidity and diversification needs, and following only the former, outsiders may be able to significantly outperform the market. Distribution of Returns While the study by Cohen et al. Goes not provide much information on the characteristics of the distribution of returns on the various portfolios used in their study, looking at other sources which study insider trading strategies may provide some insight into this issue. This information is highly relevant to risk-averse investors, to whom the probability of losses may be as important as the expected return. I n Investment Intelligence from Insider Trading, H. Negate Shun finds that the probability of loss (defined as earning lower returns than an investment in the market portfolio) on a single mimicking transaction is 49. %, excluding transaction costs, and 51 . 7% when transaction costs are taken into account. (3). When combined with the study findings on average return, which falls in the 2-3% depending on the minor variations in the study various tests of the strategy, the approximate 50-50 arability of loss indicates a positive-skewed distribution. As such an investor must mimic a large number of insider trades in order to earn returns near the average of 2-3% in ShuntÃ¢â¬â¢s findings. While the relatively high probability of losses may seem risk averse investors, as it indicates a smaller probability of extreme negative losses. Although there are substantial differences between Cohen et al. Ã¢â¬Ës study and ShuntÃ¢â¬â¢s study?likely the most important of which is that Shun does not differentiate between routine and opportunistic insiders as Cohen et al. Do?the results from ShuntÃ¢â¬â¢s study may be an indication that the distribution of Cohen et al. Ã¢â¬Ës results are positive-skewed as well. Indeed, it is likely that following only opportunistic traders would both reduce the probability of extreme negative losses, as well as increase the probability of extreme positive gains, thereby resulting in an even further positive- skewed distribution. In addition, the high probability of loss illustrated in ShuntÃ¢â¬â¢s findings would likely also be reduced when following only opportunistic traders. Trading Costs and Refinancing Because this strategy involves relatively active trading, its costs (commission fees and id-ask spreads) will undoubtedly be higher than those of a buy and hold strategy. That said, when the strategy is applied selectively, as is the case in the Cohen et al. Study (I. E. By mimicking only opportunistic insiders rather than all insiders) trading costs can be significantly reduced. In Cohen et al. Ã¢â¬Ës study, the test portfolios are rebalanced at the end of every month, based on that monthÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunistic insider trades. In both the opportunistic sell and opportunistic buy portfolios, outsiders would be able to profit by shorting and buying, respectively, holding for a month, and balancing at the end of every month. Monthly refinancing requires immediacy, and the stocks would need to be purchased and sold using market orders. The outsider would thus incur the additional costs off larger bid-ask spread. Outsiders may potentially be able to rebalanced less frequently, submitting limit orders instead of market orders, holding on to the stocks for longer periods of time, and still profit. According to ShuntÃ¢â¬â¢s findings,(4) in the case of an Ã¢â¬Å"insider buyÃ¢â¬â¢, the profits are realized over the course of several months. (5) As such, the outsider may be able to educe refinancing to twice a year, and hold on to Ã¢â¬Å"insider buyÃ¢â¬â¢ stocks for 6 months. In this case, the outsider could likely afford to submit a limit buy order and wait a few days before it executes. However, this does not apply in the case of an Ã¢â¬Å"insider sellÃ¢â¬ , as there is no evidence to indicate that these profits are realized over a period of many months. As such, monthly refinancing it necessary. Barriers to Implementation In reality, while the strategy would certainly not be difficult to follow for an institutional investor or a sophisticated individual investor, it would perhaps present mom challenges for the average investor. In Investment Intelligence from Insider Trading, Shun advises that an investor mimic close to 100 insiders, in order to reduce the probability of loss to an acceptable level. 6) Granted, applying this to a strategy which differentiates between opportunistic and routine traders would likely require an outsider to follow a smaller number of insiders in order to obtain a reasonably limited probability of loss. Another potential barrier for the average investor is differentiating between routine and opportunistic traders. While Cohen et al. Er e able to accomplish this, as would institutional and sophisticated investors, it resources to successfully differentiate between the two types of insiders. While these issues may not be particularly large obstacles, they do present additional considerations and challenges for the individual investor. Insider Trading and Serbians-Solely An interesting point to consider is the impact of changing SEC reporting regulations on an outsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to profit from following insider trades. A Stanford University study (Zealand 2005)(6) tested the success of a generic Ã¢â¬Å"mimicking strategyÃ¢â¬â¢ in the ears leading up to Serbians-Solely, versus the success of the strategy in the years following the enactment of the new legislation. The study found that in the first 27 months, it was possible to generate excess returns of up to 17. 67%, including trading costs. After this period, however, it was no longer possible to obtain these returns, likely because the market had fully adjusted to this new source of public information. Looking forward, it is possible that any further changes in SEC regulation make information more readily accessible with a smaller delay, will present investors with another opportunity to earn additional returns before the market is able to react. Strategy Comparison While Cohen et al. Are the first to attempt to generate excess returns by differentiating specifically between routine and opportunistic traders, a number of studies in the academic literature have sought to increase returns from following insider trading by applying the strategy in various other selective ways. Although the Ã¢â¬Å"routine vs.. OpportunisticÃ¢â¬ strategy appears to be the most successful thus far, several other versions of the strategy have also managed to create excess returns. A duty conducted in Sweden (Ayatollah and El-Marin, 2005) reveals that replicating insider trades of stocks listed on the A-List and Attract 40 (the Swedish stock indices reserved for larger companies with significant operating history) does not generate abnormal returns at a significant level. On the other hand, replicating buy transactions of Ã¢â¬Å"insider clustersÃ¢â¬ (multiple firm insiders making similar trades in the same time period) of firms trading on the O-list (designated for companies which lack the requisite operating history or size for listing on the more established lists) could generate abnormal returns up to 33. , excluding transaction costs. By selectively applying a mimicking strategy to smaller companies rather than larger ones, to buy transactions rather than sell transactions, and to insider clusters (numerous firm insiders making same-type trades in a given period of time) rather to individual investors,(7) an outsider may be able to generate excess return s. The study conducted by Shun, which examines 60,000 insider transactions on the NYSE from 1975-1981, reveals similar results. Over the course of 100 days, the buy transactions exhibited excess returns of 3%, while the sell transactions underperformed the racket by 1 . %. In other words, an outsider may have been able to profit by going long Ã¢â¬Å"inside buysÃ¢â¬ , but not by shorting Ã¢â¬Å"inside sellsÃ¢â¬ . He also found that there has been a greater amount of uninformative sell transactions that have taken place in the ass, compared to the ass-ass(8), it could be that since sass, the amount and frequency of stock compensations has greatly and continuously increased,(9),thus it into routines and opportunistic you would be able to keep the informative transactions and be less affect by this tendency. ShuntÃ¢â¬â¢s results also indicate that placating insider trades in smaller firms generated higher excess returns than insider trades in larger firms. (10) It may be easier to generate excess returns by replicating insider trades in smaller firms, because these insiders are typically subjected to less scrutiny by analysts and by the media than their counterparts in larger firms. As such, they may be more willing to engage in profitable, Ã¢â¬Å"performance- predictingÃ¢â¬ trades than insiders at larger firms. However, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also possible that these trades generate higher expected returns simply because they have increased risk. In order to compensate investors for this risk, investments in smaller firms can be expected to generate higher returns, as reflected in the Fame French model. Similar to the Swedish study, a study conducted by Jenny et al. (1999) (7) also found replicating insider cluster transactions to be more profitable than replicating individual insider transactions. The rationale behind this?that same-type transactions from multiple firm insiders within a given period is likely motivated by insider knowledge rather than by investor-specific needsÃ¢â¬âis fairly obvious. 11) Cohen at al. Observe similar results in Decoding Inside Information. The study findings indicate that a one- standard deviation increase in the log number of opportunistic sells translates into a decrease in future returns of 29 basis points per month (excluding the specific days each year when firm executives receive stock compensation and subsequently liquidate some of their stake in the firm). (12) By differentiating b etween routine and opportunistic traders as Cohen et al. O, outsiders can avoid these routine sells, and mimic only informative inside clusters. Looking Forward Although Cohen et al. And others have illustrated various ways in which outsiders ay be able to generate excess returns by mimicking insider trades, several potential obstacles may stand in the way of this strategy in the future. As with any market inefficiency, increased popularity of the strategy as well as increased accessibility to information on insider trades may cause a decline in future returns. Today, there are already a multitude of web sites that allow outsiders to track insider trades, making information about such trades readily accessible to the average investor. As a growing number of outsiders attempt to replicate these trades, it is likely that it will come increasingly difficult for investors to mimic trades in time to capture any gains. Another potential threat to this strategy is the proliferation of endowment assurances, which firm insiders use to take advantage of offshore solutions in order to hide their transactions. Insiders are therefore able to trade stocks and derivatives of companies Ã¢â¬Å"anonymouslyÃ¢â¬â¢, and avoid reporting insider trades to regulators. This would obviously prohibit outsiders from gaining access to and mimicking insider trades. (13) Lastly, increased penalties for insider trading could also threaten the success of the strategy. Cohen et al. How that during periods with increased cases of investors being prosecuted for insider trad ing, the number of trades identified as Ã¢â¬Å"opportunisticÃ¢â¬ decrease. In other words, insiders take seriously the risk of being caught and charged. How to cite Mimicking Insider Trading, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Therefore, whereas most believe that globalisation will help improve both the economy and living standards, the others are aware of its negative effects on human rights which have become a controversial issue targeted by the media. Although globalisation plays a significant role in economic growth, its effects can cause a variety of serious concerns about individual rights. It will be argued in this essay that not only because of its drawbacks including poor working conditions and low wages, but also because of child labour issues, the ethical issues related to globalization should be considered. This essay will first indicate benefits of globalization in reducing poverty, improving the quality of life and workplace standards. Secondly, the arguments against globalization due to serious effects on individual rights will be demonstrated. Finally, it will discuss some solutions and evaluate the feasibility of the implementation of these solutions. Definitions Globalization is defined in many different ways. However, all of them imply that globalization is a process which has been bringing the world closer through the exchange of technology, economy, polity and culture across national frontiers that lead to greater interdependence between countries with free transfer of goods, services, capital, labor and knowledge (Awuah Amal, 2011). In other words, globalization may be described as an elimination of barriers of time and distance to increase the connectivity among countries of the world (Healey, 2008). Child labour can be defined as any kind of harmful work that a young child has to do with low pay levels due to psychological, social, and materialistic pressure upon them including responsibility for their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s survival and themselves (Ahmad, et al. , 2011). This concentrates mainly in the developing countries where there are numerous low-income families with parents who without educational qualifications or disability may not earn enough money to feed themselves and their children. As a result of this, these children have to go to work to sustain life. Ethics can be defined as a system of moral principles that affects peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions as to what is good for individuals and society, and concerned with responsibility and human rights (Healey, 1995). A morally right action can produce a good outcome and contrasts with a wrong action which may lead to a serious consequence. Thereby, in order to evaluate the rightness and wrongness of actions, it is possibly based on moral theories. The benefits of globalization on economy and society It is claimed that globalization has positive influences on the economy and society. Firstly, it can lead to improvement in the standard of living and diminishing poverty rates, compared with globalization when international trade had not taken place, exchange trading between countries was limited due to tariff barriers leading to hampering the transfer of commodities across borders. Therefore, it was possible only to be consumed domestic goods instead of diverse imported goods. However, as a result of globalization, advancement of global economy and expansion foreign direct investment lead to local economic development with the diversification of commodities and the improvement in efficiency and productivity (Healey A, 2008). McNichol, (cited in Healey A, 2008) states that the economic gains of globalization led to the acceleration of the standard of living and the decline in poverty. According to the World Bank, from 1993 to 1998, poverty rate has reduced by 14 percent in developing countries, similar to about 107 million people. This may result from receiving foreign investment that plays an important role in local economy growth. For example, the proportion of population living in poverty in India decreased by half in the two decades, from the 1970s to 1990s, while the number of Chinese in poverty declined by approximately 210 million during twenty-one years, from 1978 to 1999 (Healey 2008). In other words, the standard of living is improving due to the benefits of international economic activities. Moreover, the quality of life of citizens in these countries is possibly improved with developing health care services and clean water, leading to increasing the average life expectancy. It is possible to anticipate that the number of citizens living for at least sixty years will account for about 85 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population (Healey, 2008). This is due to the effects of globalization on medicine that have led to an increase of international medical exchange. As a result, solutions for disease treatment and surgery had been increasing remarkably that may save many people from death. Thus, life expectancy is lengthened. In other words, globalization may provide better living conditions and double the average life expectancy of 100 years ago (Healey, 2008). Furthermore, increasing global income and reducing investment barriers that globalization brings attract foreign direct investment. As a result of this, many factories have been opened up in developing countries with the average wage levels higher compare with those in local companies. In addition, these have adequate conditions for local employees developing their individual capacity including modern equipment, well-paying, high security and equal competition (Healey, 2008). Nike is an example of foreign direct investment. With developing distribution networks for high-quality shoes worldwide, Nike has opened up many factories in developing countries, especially South-East Asia. This has provided job opportunities for local people, leading to a decrease of unemployment rates and an advancement of local economies (Richard Alvin, 2001). Dangers of globalization to human rights Despite the many benefits of globalization, its negative impacts should not be forgotten because of its serious threats on human rights. With the xpansion of trade, market, foreign investment, in order to attract investors and competing with other countries, governments not only offer the most accordant and cheapest labor, but also reduce taxes. In addition, governments primarily concentrate on developing infrastructure while standards of the environment, health and safety have been ignored. Moreover, in order to advance infrastructure, a budget deficit may occur when government exp enditure is greater than tax collections. Therefore, governments must borrow money to fund their deficit spending. As a result, local community has to be responsibility for most costs including production, advancing society and protecting environment. Chunakara (2000) claims that liberalization may lead to an increase in inequality and directly affect the poor in escaping from poverty. It is possible that they will forever live in poverty and inequality, unless governments have relevant policies due to the fact that they have to work in hazardous conditions with low income. In other words, poor may have to face violation of human rights including low-wages, poor working conditions and child labor. With the liberalization of global trade, developing countries have found foreign investment for development though cheap labor (Chunakara, 2000). Many factories have been opened up in rural areas or suburbs of cities and attracted a lot of local workers. However, these employees had been not paid even the minimum daily wage. For example, in the early 1990s, in Indonesia, some shoes factories of Nike only paid workers an extreme low-wage level, approximately US$1, only covered 70% of the necessary need that one person must pay (Richard et al. , 2003). This level was not adequate to workerÃ¢â¬â¢s life, thus, it led to a wave of criticism against Nike and its managers owing to the violation of human rights. In other words, to a certain extent, globalization may lead to inequality for workers because their rights are ignored. Another problem caused by globalization is poor working conditions. In order to maximize profit, factories neglect safety standards that have serious influences on worker health. Despite working in polluted environments, they lack of equipment needed for protection. For example, in 1997, the rate of toxic chemicals exceeded allowed levels from 6 to 177 times in sections of NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s factory in Vietnam. This chemical may cause serious effects to nervous system, skin and eyes (Richard et al. , 2003). If workers injured grievously, they could have consequences for many generations. This was a dangerous issue concerning with ethics, leading to an increase in criticism against Nike. This is a clear example of globalization having substantially contributed to violence of human rights. Problems of globalization should be considered and found solutions for them, but, the most serious issue of child labor must be eliminated immediately. This is due to the fact that children are the future of the world, their development have impacts on many generations. Therefore, this issue has created a wave of controversy throughout the world. Siddiqi and Patrinos (1995) point out that Asia and Africa have the highest rates of working children, accounting for approximately 90 percent of total child workers, led by India with 44 million child workers. It is clear that children mainly concentrate in rural regions where majority families are living in poverty. They have to work full time in hazardous conditions and low income instead of going to school. Therefore, it is necessary to find underlying causes of this issue. Firstly, developing countries only concentrate on advancing infrastructure in steady of school, leading to the low qualification of the education. Therefore, the parents believe that it is a waste of time for their children going to school while they may obtain experience in working and contribute to family income. Weiner (in Siddigi 1995) state that the proportion of illiterate Indians over 15 years old accounted for approximately 59 percent. This is a worth alarming rate (Siddiqi el al, 1995). Furthermore, in order to attract foreign investment, government may ignore a variety of illegal sectors. In other words, there is a lack of enforcement of policies among own nations. For example, in Costa Rica, the lowest limited age for working is lower than that for education, leading to a result that children can go to work before finished educational program (Siddiqi el al, 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to have a modification of policies for controlling child labor. In conclusion, children work for some reasons, but, its underline cause is effects of globalization on developing countries. Solutions for problems of globalization Human rights are inherent to human being. Therefore, protection from violence, exploitation and abuse is essential. Governments need to have relevant policies to both develop economy and ensure rights for citizens. At the same time, it is necessary to find methods which may control these policies following the principles in order to limit human rights violence. In addition, each problem must have independent solutions. For example, for low wage issue, governments should have the laws of minimum wages because it is unlikely to rely on low wages to advance economy. If wage levels were enhanced, workers would have an increase in the quality of life. In other words, they increase the capability to pay fees, taxes and loans while still ensure education and health care for their children. In 1999, in Indonesia, under pressure from public, government enhanced minimum wages to US$26. As a result, this led to a rise in wages for employees in some companies. For instance, about US$33 is average wages for labors working in Nike (Rechard et al, 2003). This is not only being the optimal solution for eliminating poverty, but also motivating labors at work. Another problem is poor working conditions which must be close control of standards to protect rights of workers. All of factories need to sign pledges of safety and health conditions. For example, Nike has obligated its suppliers signing a Code of Conduct. This means that they have to secure toxic chemical concentrations in acceptable standards and provide the protective equipment for labors. This is essential conditions and workers have rights to get it. Child labor is a serious issue which is difficult to solve by few solutions because there are many reasons which cause this problem. Therefore, in order to eliminate it, governments have to combine many different ways. Firstly, there have the reasonable laws of the minimum age for working and that for school to keep children in school (Gary, 1997). Moreover, governments need to invest in quality education to encourage parents take their children into education. Gary (1997) states that the method, which annual pay for poor parents if they remain their children in school until 14 years old is being under the debate in some nations in Latin America. This may lead to a decrease of child labor, but, it is only temporary solution. For some children having ill parents, they are compulsory to work to survive, so, having special policies for this situation is under the necessity of doing of government. Factories should have training course for child worker to increase skills and knowledge. These are useful for their own job both in present and in future (Rechard, 2003). Conclusion Taken together, this invites the conclusion that globalization has both its winners and losers. With the expansion of trade, market, foreign investment, developing countries may see the gaps among themselves widen.
Monday, March 23, 2020
The purpose of this report is to examine the brand extensions strategy of Zara which include these areas: the marketing objectives of brand extension, the relationship between competitive advantage of Zara and the brand extension strategy, the model and concept of evaluate customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards FFB extensions to judge whether the company is suitable to adopt brand extension strategy, apply the model into ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s three proposed extensions and the strengths and weaknesses of this strategy. Marketing Objectives Brand extension can be defined as Ã¢â¬Ëthe use of an established brand name on a new brand within the same broad market or product categoryÃ¢â¬â¢ by Jobber (2007) and as stated by Choi, et al (2010) a typical definition is Ã¢â¬Ëthe use of an established brand name to enter new product categories or classesÃ¢â¬â¢. As brand equity contribute to an increase of share value of the intangible assets of the company (Madden, Frank amp; Susan, 2006). We will write a custom essay sample on Brand Extension for Zara or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Brand extension is a key tool to enhance brand equity (Susan, Hang amp; Mary, 2012). Therefore, the objectives of implementing brand extension are enhancing the brand equity value, increasing sales and enhancing the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ image of the brand values by increased communication (Jobber, 2007). Competitive advantages of Zara According to the founder of Inditex, Amancio Ortega indicated that the aim of Zara is Ã¢â¬â¢to democratise fashion by offering the latest fashion in medium quality at affordable pricesÃ¢â¬â¢. The competitive advantages of Zara which differentiate from other competitors are the turnaround time and the feedback information from store (Lopez amp; Fan, 2009). Zara can finish designing, manufacturing, delivering a new clothing within four weeks and display a new garment in two weeks (Economist, 2005). Managers of Zara need to contact with the store to discover the demand of customers in daily basis and its advanced technology enables this company to quick response to customersÃ¢â¬â¢ changing demand. The time factor and feedback from store clarified that Zara is a customer oriented company. Therefore, customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards brand extension is vital for Zara to make the decision. Model and concept ConsumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective towards brand extension can be influenced by perceived fit, perceived quality, self-image, brand loyalty and involvement (Hansen and Hem, 2004). Brand extension fit as a determinant of a successful brand extension (Hem and Iversen, 2003) can be defined as perceived similarity and relevance with the parent brand (Broniarcyk amp; Alba, 1994). Aaker and Keller (1990) found that perceived fit can be evaluated by two areas: product concept consistency and product feature similarity. Park, et al (1991) expounded that people who had a higher brand concept association with the extended category would give relevant connection to the existing main brand. Martin, Stewart and Matta (2005) demonstrated that as long as the brand concept is highly consistent, even if the extended product category is different from the existing product, the two products can be regarded as Ã¢â¬ËfitÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus, brand concept consistency is a key factor to test the extended product to be fit or not. As for the similarity, Aaker and Keller (1990) stated that there are three aspects of product features similarity between extended product and the parent brand product need to be investigated: complementarity (can be used together with original product), substitutability (can replace the original product) and transferability (manufacturing skills overlaps). The Consumer evaluation process model for fast fashion brand extensions is displayed as below. (Source from Choi, et al, 2010) Apply model into Zara The research carried out by Choi, et al (2010) which is considering three brand extensions of Zara: Zara music, Zara Moda (higher-end ladiesÃ¢â¬â¢ wear) and Zara sports. To evaluate the attitude of consumers towards the brand extension of Zara, product concept consistency and product feature similarity can be adopted. In the research it has been shown that consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards Zara Music and Zara Moda are highly affected by the brand concept consistency while consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards the FFB extension of Zara Sports are more affected by transferability aspect of similarity. Nevertheless, one aspect need to be mentioned, self-image has less influence on consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards FFB extension since people buy Zara concerned more about style and design of the product may not consider if the extension brand match their image (Choi, et al, 2010). The most significant factor that influenced customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards brand extension of Zara is the perceived quality. Another aspect has been indicated by Swaminathan (2003), the degree of loyalty with the parent brand will affect consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying behaviour towards extended product. Therefore, according to the response of the consumers, in order to achieve a successful brand extension strategy, Zara as a FFB may need to focus more on increasing the brand loyalty and developing the quality of product and service. Strengths and weaknesses The awareness of the core brand reduces the advertising and other marketing costs (Jobber, 2007; Keller, 1993). Brand extension of a well known brand can reduce the risk of purchase on some distributors and consumers. The utilisation of the parent brand name raises customersÃ¢â¬â¢ intention to buy the new brand. Furthermore, implementing brand extension strategy can increase consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of brand values and thus raise the sales of the core brand (Jobber, 2007). However, unexpected negative performance of the brand extension may influence the core brandÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. The sales of parent brand may be diluted by the extended brand (Jobber, 2007; Keller, 1993). Last but not least, the encouragement of using brand extension strategy may lead to less focus on true innovation (Jobber, 2007). Conclusion Brand extension strategy can be adopted in Zara. Zara as a customer-oriented company, need to pay more attention to the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards extension. Brand extension fit, perceived quality and brand loyalty may need to be considered more carefully while self image do not necessarily be taken into account in a FFB company. Although the advantages of brand extension are evident, the brand managers need to analysis their own brandÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, should be aware of the risks of implementing this strategy and may need to attempt to thinking in an innovated way instead of concentrate on minor brand modifications.
Friday, March 6, 2020
The Culture of Victimization and Empowerment of Lucy Westenra Women in Bram Stokers Dracula 1897 essays
The Culture of Victimization and Empowerment of Lucy Westenra Women in Bram Stokers Dracula 1897 essays Dracula, a novel written by the British writer Bram Stoker in 1897, chronicles the life of Jonathan Harker and Mina Murray in Transylvania, where as engaged lovers, they encountered Count Dracula of Transylvania. Count Dracula's character provides the horror element to the novel because it was rumored (in the novel) that the Count is a vampire, who victimizes women in the town of Transylvania through impalement. The main conflict comes when the Count transferred from Transylvania to England, where there are more opportunities to victimize more people, putting Mina in danger. Prior to Mina's victimization, her best friend Lucy Westenra has already been afflicted with the Count's vampirism.' Chapters 7 through 16 chronicles, through journal entries and correspondences, the worsening condition of Lucy, starting from her sickness right after being impaled by Dracula, and eventual transformation, or "birth," as a vampire (Project Gutenberg, 2004). Lucy's victimization and transformation as a vampire illustrates a strong point in the novel. Lucy, as the victim, and Mina, as the potential victim of Dracula in the novel, exemplifies the culture of "victimization of women" in the novel, where they are first illustrated as weak individuals and later empowered through the significant roles they played in defeating and overpowering Count Dracula. This paper analyzes the theme of victimization and empowerment of women in Dracula. Lucy and Mina, as the main women characters in the novel, played important roles as victims of the Count who eventually became instrumental in making possible the defeat of Count Dracula from Harker's group (Quincey Morris, Dr. John Seward, and Professor Abraham Van Helsing). This paper specifically uses the character of Lucy Westenra in order to argue the position of this thesis. The analysis shows that in order to become empowered, women must ...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Environmental Ethics - Essay Example Both authors have provided different categories of costs and benefits obtained from ecosystems, and more universal environmental principles. However, Steve Kelman does not agree with FreemanÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that cost-benefit analysis can be related to objectives mentioned above (e.g. human health protection, security, etc.). According to Kelman, regulatory judgments concerning the environment, security, and health are moral issues, and hence analysis of cost and benefit is improper since it necessitates the implementation of a poor moral mechanism. Kelman strengthens his position with several illustrations, majority of which concern individual or private judgments. He claims, in these circumstances, supporters of cost-benefit analysis, like Freeman, should abandon any moral doubts about human rights violation, deception, and corruption. These arguments about cost-benefit analysis can be used in addressing the poor food manufacturing process of fast-food companies, as discussed by E ric Schlosser. In his article, Schlosser gives a series of accusations against the unethical practices and processes of fast-food companies, such as refusal to give medical privileges, creating modern-day slavery, aggressive marketing to gullible children; these are the strategies employed by fast-food companies to maintain high profitability. Given this, and an idea of the arguments of Freeman and Kelman, cost-benefit analysis in this case may or may not be appropriate. Using the similar premises of Freeman and Kelman, cost-benefit analysis may be appropriate in determining how fast-food companies have powerfully changed the agricultural sector of industrialized nations, such as the United States. These fast-food companies, like McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, have generated marginal benefits to agriculture by centralizing production. However, because of this production consolidation, farmers and small enterprises are vanishing. There are also drastic alterations in animal domestication and foo d production which caused spates of food-related diseases, like the foot-and-mouth disease, mad cow, bird flu, and others. This situation, according to the arguments of Freeman and Kelman, may be subjected to cost-benefit analysis because of the nature of its effect to environmental policy. However, in terms of actual threats to human health, in accordance to KelmanÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments against the moral deficit of cost-benefit analysis, the case of poor food production practices is unviable. The unethical way fast-food companies conceal to the public the actual health perils of their products substantiate KelmanÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. Furthermore, the industry of meat packing even benefits more from government protection or immunity. Question 2 According to Christopher Stone, corporations should not be socially responsible because they are inherently irresponsible. The primary justification Stone provided is that nobody, from the ordinary citizen to large organizations, has a basic idea of the nature and requirement of corporate responsibility. In order to develop a model of his argument, Stone raises fundamental issues and thoroughly